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QUESTION 21
Pilot testing of the new switching infrastructure finds that when the root port is lost, STP immediately replaces the root port with an alternative root port. Which spanning-tree technology is used to accomplish backup root port selection?

A.    PVST+
B.    PortFast
C.    BackboneFast
D.    UplinkFast
E.    Loop Guard
F.    UDLD

Answer: D
Explanation:
If a switch loses connectivity, it begins using the alternate paths as soon as the spanning tree selects a new root port. By enabling UplinkFast with the spanning-tree uplinkfast global configuration command, you can accelerate the choice of a new root port when a link or switch fails or when the spanning tree reconfigures itself. The root port transitions to the forwarding state immediately without going through the listening and learning states, as it would with the normal spanning-tree procedures. UplinkFast provides fast convergence after a direct link failure and achieves load balancing between redundant Layer 2 links using uplink groups. An uplink group is a set of Layer 2 interfaces (per VLAN), only one of which is forwarding at any given time. Specifically, an uplink group consists of the root port (which is forwarding) and a set of blocked ports, except for self-looping ports. The uplink group provides an alternate path in case the currently forwarding link fails.

QUESTION 22
A network engineer must adjust the STP interface attributes to influence root port selection. Which two elements are used to accomplish this? (Choose two.)

A.    port-priority
B.    cost
C.    forward-timers
D.    link type
E.    root guard

Answer: AB
Explanation:
Spanning tree forces redundant data paths into a standby (blocked) state. If a network segment in the spanning tree fails and a redundant path exists, the spanning-tree algorithm recalculates the spanning-tree topology and activates the standby path. Switches send and receive spanning-tree frames, called bridge protocol data units (BPDUs), at regular intervals. The switches do not forward these frames but use them to construct a loop-free path. BPDUs contain information about the sending switch and its ports, including switch and MAC addresses, switch priority, port priority, and path cost. Spanning tree uses this information to elect the root switch and root port for the switched network and the root port and designated port for each switched segment. When two ports on a switch are part of a loop, the spanning-tree port priority and path cost settings control which port is put in the forwarding state and which is put in the blocking state. The spanning-tree port priority value represents the location of a port in the network topology and how well it is located to pass traffic. The path cost value represents the media speed.

QUESTION 23
A network engineer must set the load balance method on an existing port channel. Which action must be done to apply a new load balancing method?

A.    Configure the new load balancing method using port-channel load-balance.
B.    Adjust the switch SDM back to “default”.
C.    Ensure that IP CEF is enabled globally to support all load balancing methods.
D.    Upgrade the PFC to support the latest load balancing methods.

Answer: A
Explanation:
EtherChannel balances the traffic load across the links in a channel through the reduction of part of the binary pattern that the addresses in the frame form to a numerical value that selects one of the links in the channel.
EtherChannel load balancing can use MAC addresses or IP addresses, source or destination addresses, or both source and destination addresses. The mode applies to all EtherChannels that are configured on the switch.
You configure the load balancing and forwarding method with use of the port-channel load-balance {dst-ip | dst-mac | src-dst-ip | src-dst-mac | src-ip | src-mac} global configuration command.

QUESTION 24
Refer to the exhibit. A network engineer investigates a recent network failure and notices that one of the interfaces on the switch is still down. What is causing the line protocol on this interface to be shown as down?

A.    There is a layer 1 physical issue.
B.    There is a speed mismatch on the interface.
C.    The interface is configured as the target of the SPAN session.
D.    The interface is configured as the source of the SPAN session.
E.    There is a duplex mismatch on the interface.

Answer: C
Explanation:
With the SAPN destination port, the state of the destination port is up/down by design. The interface shows the port in this state in order to make it evident that the port is currently not usable as a production port. This is the normal operational state for SPAN destinations.

QUESTION 25
While doing network discovery using Cisco Discovery Protocol, it is found that rapid error tracking is not currently enabled. Which option must be enabled to allow for enhanced reporting mechanisms using Cisco Discovery Protocol?

A.    Cisco Discovery Protocol version 2
B.    Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager
C.    logging buffered
D.    Cisco Discovery Protocol source interface
E.    Cisco Discovery Protocol logging options

Answer: A
Explanation:
CDP Version 1 — This is the first version of CDP which was used for the discovery of Cisco devices in the network. This version is mainly used for backward compatibility.
CDP Version 2 — This is the most recent version of CDP which has enhanced features such as rapid reporting mechanism, which is used to track down errors and minimize costly downtime. It allows you to track instances even if the native VLAN ID or port duplex states do not match between connecting devices.
This is the default version on all switches.

QUESTION 26
After port security is deployed throughout an enterprise campus, the network team has been overwhelmed with port reset requests. They decide to configure the network to automate the process of re-enabling user ports. Which command accomplishes this task?

A.    switch(config)# errdisable recovery interval 180
B.    switch(config)# errdisable recovery cause psecure-violation
C.    switch(config)# switchport port-security protect
D.    switch(config)# switchport port-security aging type inactivity
E.    switch(config)# errdisable recovery cause security-violation

Answer: B
Explanation:
When a secure port is in the error-disabled state, you can bring it out of this state automatically by configuring the errdisable recovery cause psecure-violation global configuration command or you can manually reenable it by entering the shutdown and no shut down interface configuration commands. This is the default mode. If a port is in per-VLAN errdisable mode, you can also use clear errdisable interface name vlan range command to re-enable the VLAN on the port. You can also customize the time to recover from the specified error disable cause (default is 300 seconds) by entering the errdisable recovery interval interval command. Reference: Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst4500/12-2/53SG/configuration/config/port_sec.pdf

QUESTION 27
The network monitoring application alerts a network engineer of a client PC that is acting as a rogue DHCP server. Which two commands help trace this PC when the MAC address is known? (Choose two.)

A.    switch# show mac address-table
B.    switch# show port-security
C.    switch# show ip verify source
D.    switch# show ip arp inspection
E.    switch# show mac address-table address <mac address>

Answer: AE
Explanation:
These two commands will show the MAC address table, including the switch port that the particular host is using. Here is an example output:
Switch> show mac-address-table
Dynamic Addresses Count: 9
Secure Addresses (User-defined) Count: 0
Static Addresses (User-defined) Count: 0
System Self Addresses Count: 41 Total MAC addresses: 50 Non-static Address Table: Destination Address Address Type VLAN Destination Port ——————- ———— —- ——————– 0010.0de0.e289 Dynamic 1 FastEthernet0/1 0010.7b00.1540 Dynamic 2 FastEthernet0/5 0010.7b00.1545 Dynamic 2 FastEthernet0/5

QUESTION 28
A network engineer has just deployed a non-Cisco device in the network and wants to get information about it from a connected device. Cisco Discovery Protocol is not supported, so the open standard protocol must be configured. Which protocol does the network engineer configure on both devices to accomplish this?

A.    IRDP
B.    LLDP
C.    NDP
D.    LLTD

Answer: B
Explanation:
The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is a vendor-neutral link layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite used by network devices for advertising their identity, capabilities, and neighbors on an IEEE 802 local area network, principally wired Ethernet. LLDP performs functions similar to several proprietary protocols, such as the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP).

QUESTION 29
A manager tells the network engineer to permit only certain VLANs across a specific trunk interface. Which option can be configured to accomplish this?

A.    allowed VLAN list
B.    VTP pruning
C.    VACL
D.    L2P tunneling

Answer: A
Explanation:
When a trunk link is established, all of the configured VLANs are allowed to send and receive traffic across the link. VLANs 1 through 1005 are allowed on each trunk by default. However, VLAN traffic can be removed from the allowed list. This keeps traffic from the VLANs from passing over the trunk link.
Note: The allowed VLAN list on both the ends of the trunk link should be the same.
For Integrated Cisco IOS Software based switches, perform these steps:
1.To restrict the traffic that a trunk carries, issue the switchport trunk vlan-list interface configuration command.
This removes specific VLANs from the allowed list.

QUESTION 30
For client server failover purposes, the application server team has indicated that they must not have the standard 30 second delay before their switchport enters a forwarding state. For their disaster recovery feature to operate successfully, they require the switchport to enter a forwarding state immediately. Which spanning-tree feature satisfies this requirement?

A.    Rapid Spanning-Tree
B.    Spanning-Tree Timers
C.    Spanning-Tree FastPort
D.    Spanning-Tree PortFast
E.    Spanning-Tree Fast Forward

Answer: D
Explanation:
In order to allow immediate transition of the port into forwarding state, enable the STP PortFast feature.
PortFast immediately transitions the port into STP forwarding mode upon linkup. The port still participates in STP. So if the port is to be a part of the loop, the port eventually transitions into STP blocking mode.
Example configuration:
Switch-C# configure terminal
Switch-C(config)# interface range fa0/3 – 24
Switch-C(config-if-range)# spanning-tree portfast

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